A novel approach for glycosylated hemoglobin testing using microchip affinity electrophoresis

Sekyonda Z, An R, Avanaki A et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2022;doi:10.1109/TBME.2022.3218501

Objective: Effective management of diabetes largely benefits from early diagnosis followed by intensive long-term regulation of blood glucose. The levels of glycohemoglobin (HbA1 and HbA1c) have been used as standard biomarkers to assess long-term blood glucose concentrations for diabetes diagnosis and management. Gold standard laboratory methods for HbA1 and HbA1c testing are often costly and not widely available. Moreover, currently available point-of-care (POC) immunoassay-based glycohemoglobin tests may produce inaccurate test results for patient with co-existing diseases such as hemoglobin disorders and anemia. Here, we report a POC platform, HemeChip-GHb, for quantitative HbA1 detection leveraging paper-based affinity electrophoresis.

Methods: We describe the design and development of the HemeChip-GHb test. Feasibility and accuracy of the HemeChip-GHb system were demonstrated by testing blood samples collected from healthy donors, patients with prediabetes, and patients with diabetes.

Results: HbA1 levels measured with HemeChip-GHb show 0.96 correlation to the levels reported from the clinical standard HPLC tests, and with a bias of −0.72% based on Bland-Altman analysis. 99.6% of the HbA1 levels for paired HemeChip-GHb and HPLC fell within A and B zones of no difference in clinical outcome based on error grid analysis.

Conclusion: Using HemeChip-GHb we achieved accurate diabetes status detection with sensitivity and specificity of 100%.

Significance: We presented a novel POC paper-based affinity electrophoresis platform that has the potential for accurately diagnosing diabetes, and addressing an unmet need for accurate and affordable diagnostics in resource-challenged environments.