A review of cardiac troponin I detection by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: under the spotlight of point-of-care testing

Saviñon-Flores AI, Saviñon-Flores F, Trejo G et al. Front Chem 2022;10:1017305

Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a biomarker widely related to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), one of the leading causes of death around the world. Point-of-care testing (POCT) of cTnI not only demands a short turnaround time for its detection but the highest accuracy levels to set expeditious and adequate clinical decisions. The analytical technique Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) possesses several properties that tailor to the POCT format, such as its flexibility to couple with rapid assay platforms like microfluidics and paper-based immunoassays. Here, we analyse the strategies used for the detection of cTnI by SERS considering POCT requirements. From the detection ranges reported in the reviewed literature, we suggest the diseases other than AMI that could be diagnosed with this technique. For this, a section with information about cardiac and non-cardiac diseases with cTnI release, including their release kinetics or cut-off values are presented. Likewise, POCT features, the use of SERS as a POCT technique, and the biochemistry of cTnI are discussed. The information provided in this review allowed the identification of strengths and lacks of the available SERS-based point-of-care tests for cTnI and the disclosing of requirements for future assays design.