Histopathology is a crucial stage in the diagnosis of many diseases, particularly cancer staging and therapy management. Current challenges facing pathology are a shortage of pathologists and an increasing workload resulting from expanded screening programmes, increased test complexity and an increasing elderly population. Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, UK, has a fully subspecialized diagnostic histopathology […]
by Dr Mustafa Yousif, Dr David S. McClintock and Dr Keluo Yao Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to optimize anatomic pathology (AP) laboratory efficiency, enhance pathologists’ diagnostic skills, elevate case reimbursement and, ultimately, improve patient care. To realize this potential, AP laboratories must overcome the barriers to adopting digital pathology (DP) while DP vendors […]
by Dr Ruth Ayling Calprotectin is a protein derived from neutrophils and its presence in feces can be used as a surrogate marker of gastrointestinal inflammation. Measurement is useful to differentiate inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD) from functional bowel disease, which has similar clinical features but different etiology, and to manage patients with established IBD.
by Dr Christina C. Pierre and Dr Lindsay Bazydlo Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a hypercoagulable disorder that is mediated by antibodies against heparin complexed to platelet factor 4. HIT antibodies activate platelets, which generate a self-propagating, pro-coagulant state. A subset of patients with HIT develop thrombosis that can be limb- and/or life-threatening. This review provides […]
by Dr Jacqueline Gosink Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are increasingly used to treat chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatic diseases and psoriasis. Continuous drug level monitoring and administration interval adjustment accompanying the treatment with TNF inhibitors is the key to successful, individualized and targeted patient care. Concentrations of the TNF inhibitors adalimumab or infliximab can […]
In August 2020 new guidance was issued by the National Institut e for Health and Care Excellence on the use of high-sensitivity troponin tests for the early rule-out of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). CLI caught up with Heather Read-Harper from Beckman Coulter to find out more about the use of cardiac troponin biomarkers in the […]
One of the conundrums presented by COVID-19 is that it is not uncommon for patients to present with remarkably low oxygen saturation levels but with very little breathlessness. Additionally, it has been noted that there is an additional risk of stroke in COVID-19 patients (and COVID-19-recovered patients) and that they seem to have what is being referred to as ‘sticky blood’. A recent paper by Professor Yost (Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, UT, USA) and colleagues ‘Neutrophil extracellular traps contribute to immunothrombosis in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome’ discusses the role that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can play in the development of these symptoms and prothrombotic disease outcomes. CLI was very fortunate to catch up with Professor Yost to learn more about NETs and their effects in COVID-19 and other conditions.
by Dr Madeleen Bosma
Despite intensive anticoagulation therapy and improved mechanical characteristics of the current systems, hemolysis and clot formation are frequent complications in extracorporeal life support (ECLS/ECMO), which is the standard rescue treatment in patients with severely impaired cardiac and/or pulmonary function. The laboratory aspects of monitoring of hemolysis and hypercoagulation in this patient group are discussed in this short review.
by Dr Andrew Lane
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and its global proliferation has spurred unprecedented efforts by academia and the in vitro diagnostics industry to develop rapid tests that can be used for point-of-care (POC) testing. At the time of writing, over 200 rapid test kits are under development or have already been commercialized for use. Yet, owing to relaxation of regulatory standards and the unprecedented pace at which tests have been developed, many have not been adequately assessed. In this article, Dr Andy Lane explains the role of POC diagnostics for COVID-19 and the improvements needed for their widespread use, including the importance of high-quality reagents.
by Dr Jacqueline Gosink
The autoimmunogenic myositides (idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, IIM) constitute a group of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases that are characterized by chronic inflammation of muscles. Unfortunately, the general misdiagnosis rate is high resulting in a delay to diagnosis of several years. Moreover, a significant proportion of patients with IIM suffer from a generalized feeling of severe illness due to the damage caused by both the disease and its treatment. Autoantibodies are useful biomarkers to differentiate clinically indistinguishable subforms of IIM. Despite the low prevalences and isolated occurrence of many autoantibodies in IIM, they constitute the basis for serological diagnostics. The diagnostic information is maximized by employing comprehensive multiparametric assays covering both myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies.